Lots of kinds of timber are made use of in industrial truck bodywork right now, and it is used in a range of distinctive kinds ranging from sections for framing, chipboard for partitions, to confronted plywood for ornamental panels. Created timber panels are also used in conjunction with other resources this kind of as aluminum and plastics to generate panels for unique functions which contain warmth and seem insulation and to strengthen resistance to typical use and the weather conditions.

Some timbers are additional appropriate for motor vehicle bodywork than some others simply because of their superior power, resistance to use, decay and hearth, or look.

While timber is used in many forms, it is all attained from possibly delicate wood trees or temperate or tropical hardwoods.


There are a substantial range of softwood trees, which include things like lots of types of pine, fur, and spruce which make up about 90 for every cent of all timbers employed normally in the U.S.A and Europe. These trees are usually discovered in the northern hemisphere most of them are cone bearing and evergreen, but there are some exceptions. In truth some sorts of softwoods are harder than hardwoods.

There is a excellent offer of softwoods and because a lot less time is required to mature and they are easier to do the job they are frequently more cost-effective than hardwoods. Softwoods are uses for the sides and flooring of mineral carrying autos, because it is more cost-effective and much easier to exchange. It is also employed for manufactured panels for other industrial auto bodies.


These are acquired from wide leaf trees, and there are more than 2000 varieties including this sort of perfectly recognized kinds as oak, ash, teak and mahogany. All basal wooden, which is much softer than softwoods, is in simple fact a hardwood, due to the fact it is the structure that decides the group not the texture.

For the reason that the hardwoods choose significantly for a longer period to mature, are extra tough to acquire and work, and acquire much longer to season they are significantly far more high priced. However, they are usually significantly stronger, extra durable and have considerably much more works by using than softwoods.

Hardwoods are divided into two groups:-

1. Tropical. These are from trees found in Central Africa, India and South The usa and contain the quite a few diverse forms of teak, mahogany and ebony.

2. Temperate. The varieties located in this team are oak, walnut, and ash are some of the temperate hardwoods identified in U.S.A, Europe, Japan and Australia.

Hardwoods are utilized for framing and in some kinds of veneer on panels for inside finishing. Also hardwoods this kind of as ash are really suited for curved framing customers.

Produced Panels.

Plywood, block-board, chipboard, MDF and hardboard panels are typically made use of as an alternative of stable timber panels, and have lots of pros. They can be received in larger sized measurements, are frequently stronger and are additional stable, which indicates labor expenses can be lessened when in comparison with other techniques of covering substantial spots with equivalent tongue and groove jointed timber.


Plywood is manufactured by gluing layers of veneer alongside one another at suitable angles to each other. This prevents splitting and significantly increases the strength of the panel. Curved users can also be generated by laying the veneers on a acceptable mildew or variety right before gluing.

Birch, ash, pine and fir are used in the manufacture of plywood but a lot of other varieties are utilized for the face aspect of decorative panels. Plywood is obtainable in a number of thicknesses and measurements from which vehicle body flooring can be made in one piece.

Block board.

There are a amount of created boards making use of good timber main inventory. 1 of these is block board and this consists of softwood glued alongside one another and confronted with veneers of timber these as birch and mahogany. Huge panels up to about 2 inches in thickness are developed and applied in flooring and partitions.


Chipboard is produced from graded wood chips which are bonded together beneath pressure with synthetic resins and adhesives to type significant strong panels .5 inch to 1 inch thick. These can be confronted with a lot of different resources to give painted, plastic or veneered surfaces. It has replaced good timber for many needs and because of the measurements made it is a useful auto building substance.

Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF).

MDF is manufactured by bonding wooden fibers together employing glue, warmth and tension. It is a quite adaptable content, but can only be used for interior bodywork. It need to be sealed / painted as it slowly emits urea formaldehyde which is a identified carcinogen and eye, throat and lung irritant. Appropriate security treatments need to generally be utilized when doing work with this material in any way.


This is a different helpful substance which, simply because of its smaller sized thicknesses is quite appropriate for interior paneling. It is produced from compressed timber fibers and generally has a easy aspect with the reverse aspect owning a rough or mesh finish.

Identification of timbers.

Because quite a few types of timber are utilized in motor vehicle system get the job done, it is probable to discover the additional frequent types this sort of as oak and teak. Most forms have distinctive options and qualities, and when samples are meticulously examined it is usually feasible to detect a specific sort. The subsequent functions must be regarded as:-

1. The standard appearance.

  • i) Color – crimson, brown, yellow, white.
  • ii) Grain – near or open, straight or twisted.
  • iii) Texture – difficult or soft, tough or sleek.
  • iv) Determine – shape of grain

2. Body weight.

Weighing a sample is not a reliable exam since the bodyweight will rely on the moisture information and even the weights of samples could differ.

3. Use a hand lens.

Assessment of the surface and conclusion grain may possibly expose unique capabilities.

4. Use a microscope.

The use of a microscope will help a much nearer assessment of a slender segment.

5. Dissolving a sample.

This will allow a microscopic assessment of the shape and dimensions of cells and fibers.

It should be remembered that functions and coloration may well be affected by the origin, level of progress, and therapy considering the fact that felling and many other variables.

Timber Defects.

A person of the principal drawbacks with timber is that defects may be current or may well create later on. Some of these can be addressed satisfactorily but other individuals may well need the part to be changed. Some defects can be averted totally by watchful felling, conversion and seasoning, but a information of the problems will permit you to make the greatest attainable use of the timber that may perhaps be to some degree inferior.


These are not normally a critical defect due to the fact in numerous circumstances timber is protected with paint, panels or other disguises and in timbers such as knotty pine they are taken care of so as to enhance the appearance. On the other hand knots must not be current in framing timbers, some attractive panels or other cases where by toughness or physical appearance may possibly be afflicted. Knots are approximately constantly existing and timber is generally graded by the distribution and number of knots current. Some timbers have a lot more than some others, so cautious choice is ordinarily worthwhile.

Splits and shakes.

Shakes look in different varieties and are not generally clear until the tree is felled and sawn into logs. Heart and cup shakes might not existing considerably of a trouble but other varieties these as the ring and star shakes can result in precious timber remaining unusable. In the course of the drying out or seasoning the dampness leaves the timber far more promptly from the ends than the sides. If this is much too immediate other splits may manifest.


Lots of forms of timber are affected by various bugs, and chemical cure might be productive. The choice is to eliminate and burn the contaminated element and in good shape a new piece.

Dry rot.

Timber, which is saved in circumstances which are moist or deficiency air flow will shed its energy and develop into tender and spongy. If this transpires timbers ought to be ruined.


This is a prevalent defect and is caused by uneven shrinkage in the course of seasoning. Softwoods are more prone to this, because softwoods comprise a lot more dampness than hardwoods. Warping can be minimized by sawing the logs radially alternatively of tangently. If you examine the close grain of planks it is feasible to come to a decision which way they have been slash from the log.

Will cause of timber defects.

  • i) Storm damage.
  • ii) Uncovered expanding circumstances.
  • iii) Inexperienced felling.
  • iv) Incorrect conversion.
  • v) Very poor seasoning.
  • vi) Poor storage ailments.
  • vii) Careless selection and use.

Seasoning timbers.

Dwelling trees may have a humidity information of in between 50% and 100% and due to the fact this is way too large the trees, when felled have to be seasoned or dried till the moisture information is minimized. Timber for automobile system perform ought to have a dampness written content of 12 %- 15%. If the dampness material is too superior the timber will dry out more and shrink right after use. If it is too small the timber will take in humidity from the ambiance and possibly swell. To discover the moisture content material a sample of timber is weighed in its standard ailment and then weighed once more just after it has been very carefully dried out. The moisture material is then calculated as follows:-

The humidity Information of the timber (M.C. %) is calculated by getting the damp pounds, subtracting the dry excess weight, and dividing the answer by the dry excess weight and multiplying by 1 hundred.

The approach of drying out a piece of timber to receive its humidity articles is needless in exercise, since electrical instruments are utilised to give quick readings There are a amount of explanations why timber ought to be thoroughly taken care of (seasoned):-

  • I) It is a lot more robust than unseasoned timber.
  • II) There is less danger of decay and attack by bugs.
  • III) Portray, staining and other finishing processes can be carried out productively on seasoned timber.

We must don’t forget that the cells in a piece of timber are like wood buckets. Significant amounts of h2o in the cavities and the partitions, so it is critical for timber to be properly seasoned. Just after the trees have been felled, the logs are taken to the noticed mill the place they are transformed or sawn into planks or other sections. Considering that this exposes a higher floor region to the environment seasoning time is lowered. The system utilised to saw or transform the logs will also have an impact on the shrinkage, warping or other timber defects talked over formerly.

Air Drying.

The sawn timber is piled in stacks with sticks or picket strips separating each and every layer. This will allow the air to circulate freely all-around just about every piece. The best of the stack need to be safeguarded from the sunlight and the rain, and given that moisture will dry out much more promptly from the ends of the planks, these are at times guarded to stop finish splits. The air drying method is low cost and usually qualified prospects to superior good quality timber, but it is a sluggish approach, using up to many years. The timber is liable to staining and insect assault and the humidity information is really hardly ever significantly less than the bordering space.

Kiln Drying.

This is a a great deal quicker approach, which effects in timber with a much more carefully managed humidity information. The timber is placed on trolleys and place in a kiln where the temperature and humidity are controlled. Air circulation might be by organic draft or pressured by electric lovers. Artificially seasoned timbers might be more brittle and other flaws may happen, but the diminished time needed is big advantage. Some timbers are air dried for a period prior to remaining kiln dried.

Timber Storage.

Seasoning timber procedures may perhaps choose several yrs and the timber may well be stored for a even more period of time right before it is applied. In order to continue to keep it in good situation particular safety measures ought to be noticed:-

  • i) To stop staining the timber should be shielded from chemical substances and other foreign issue, e.g. soot.
  • ii) Excessive rain and warmth ought to be averted and if stored indoors adequate ventilation ought to be delivered.
  • iii) It should really be stacked in a proper method to avert boards starting to be twisted or warped. The supporting blocks ought to be specifically beneath each other usually the timber will start off to bend.

Wooden preservatives ideal for use prior to painting.

This form of preservative is normally of a small viscosity and can usually be applied prior to the application of mentor or ornamental enamels and their painting process. It can be applied by brush, spray or dipping and is typically authorized right away to dry before software of the higher than talked about paint techniques. This encourages great adhesion and aids to lower the problems of timber illness and rot.

Before applying this form of product it is important to make absolutely sure that it does not consist of any waxes or silicone additives.

Priming of timbers.

Right before the priming of any timber it is vital to check that the timber is cleanse, dry and free of charge from any oil residues. The timber should be comprehensively flatted with a acceptable grade of glass paper and degreased with a ‘lint-free’ fabric which has been dampened with white spirits or a suitable solvent.

Priming need to then be carried out employing a ideal primer. It is crucial when priming that all places are sufficiently primed. This involves timber ends and tongue and grooves, where by parts are to be protected with metal fitments or system sections. The reason for this is to avert the ingress of moisture which would consequence in paint flaking.

Timbers made up of knots need to be dealt with in the next method, prior to priming:-

I) The knots must be burnt with a blowtorch to extract surplus resin.

II) The timber ought to be completely rubbed down and degreased as previously mentioned.

III) Just about every knot should be handled with just one or two coats of shellac, and authorized sufficient time to dry.

IV) Key the timber as earlier mentioned.

Wood finishes.

These are non-pigmented finishes. Amid individuals readily available are wax polishes, sealer coats, extensive and shorter oil varnishes, alkyd varnishes, yacht varnishes, solitary pack polyurethanes and teak oil. All these are suitable for brush application. For spray software only, use the pursuing – cellulose lacquers, two pack polyurethanes, two pack catalyzed lacquers and single and two pack epoxies. The requirements of a wood end are:-

  • i) Coloration flexibility.
  • ii) Develop.
  • iii) Life expectations.
  • iv) Acid or alkali resistance.

Sealers and wax polishes.

Sealers – These are cellulose based mostly.

Waxes – These are petroleum based mostly. 1 case in point is chilled wax which is fairly quick drying, gives tiny discoloration to the wood, and generates a superior typical complete.

Waxes – Silicone based. These waxes are really speedy drying and create a really hard waterproof complete. The wooden demands to be sealed ahead of use, and it tends to give it a cloudy appearance.

Waxes – Beeswax. This is a natural merchandise from honeycomb which has been rendered down with white spirits. It can be utilized by brush or rag and creates a excellent end that can be re-polished.

Prolonged oil varnishes.

These incorporate a lot more oil than resin in its formulation. The resin used is generally an alkyd or fossil resin. Extensive oil varnishes are versatile, owing to the sum of oil and have great toughness, producing it ideal for exterior usage. It also has a relatively obvious complete. Polyurethanes are used for wood which is left in uncovered ailments, but tends to be alternatively tender for inside use. The life expectancy is two to two and a 50 % many years, and a 4 coat technique is proposed, i.e. use just one very thin (diluted) coat followed by a few comprehensive coats.

Quick oil Varnishes.

These varnishes are swift drying but are likely to be fairly brittle. They dry to a tricky complete and are extra suited for inside use, as they do not have the overall flexibility for exterior use.

Alkyd varnishes.

These are distinct brief drying varnishes which are ideal for indoor and outside use. They are well-known as a varnish for car or truck bodies, and are also utilized as a 4-coat process.

Teak oil.

This oil is simple to use, but liberal coatings are required to restore the natural shade of the timber.

French polishing.

This is primarily based on shellac and methylated spirits. It is fast drying and results in the timber to darken. It is applied using a pad, manufactured of a packed piece of wool or gauze, protected by a piece of cotton fabric. It is nonetheless, brittle and simply broken by drinking water and white spirits. It is generally made use of in antique home furnishings.

Nitrocellulose lacquers.

These lacquers arrive in two sorts, the pre-catalyzed and the nitro-urethanes. These comprise amino and polyurethane resins respectively.


There is no doubt of the benefits of utilizing timber in industrial truck bodywork right now. Surely other resources have and will arrive together to test and switch it, but for its versatility and availability it is even now unrivalled and will be for a long time to come.

Knowing your timbers and how to look following them will make certain the greatest lifestyle expectancy from your truck or professional car.

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